SCHNITZER STEEL INDUSTRIES, INC. 12 / Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc. Form 10-K 2017 Environmental Matters Impact of Legislation and Regulation Compliancewith environmental laws and regulations is a significant factor in our operations. Our businesses are subject to extensive local, state and federal environmental protection, health, safety and transportation laws and regulations relating to, among others: • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”); • Remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”); • The discharge of materials and emissions into the air; • The prevention and remediation of soil and groundwater contamination; • The management and treatment of wastewater and storm water; • Global climate change; • The treatment, handling and/or disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste; and • The protection of our employees’ health and safety. These environmental laws regulate, among other things, the release and discharge of hazardous materials into the air, water and ground; exposure to hazardous materials; and the identification, storage, treatment, handling and disposal of hazardous materials. Environmental legislation and regulations have changed rapidly in recent years, and it is likely that we will be subject to even more stringent environmental standards in the future. Concern over climate change, including the impact of global warming, has led to significant U.S. and international regulatory and legislative initiatives to limit greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions. In 2007, theU.S. SupremeCourt ruled that theEPAwas authorized to regulate carbon dioxide under the U.S. Clean Air Act. As a consequence, the EPA initiated a series of regulatory efforts aimed at addressing greenhouse gases as pollutants, including finding that GHG emissions endanger public health, implementing mandatory GHG emission reporting requirements, setting carbon emission standards for light-duty vehicles and taking other steps to address GHG emissions. Legislation has also been proposed in the U.S. Congress to address GHG emissions and global climate change, including “cap and trade” programs, and some form of federal climate change legislation or additional federal regulation is possible. In addition, we are required to annually report GHG emissions from our steel mill to the State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality and the EPA. A number of other states, including states in which we have operations and facilities, have considered, are considering or have already enacted legislation to develop information or address climate change and GHG emissions, as well. Although our objective is to maintain compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations, we have, in the past, been found to be not in compliance with certain environmental laws and regulations and have incurred liabilities, expenditures, fines and penalties associated with such violations. In December 2000, we were notified by the EPA that we are one of the potentially responsible parties that owns or operates, or formerly owned or operated, sites which are part of or adjacent to the Portland Harbor Superfund site (see discussion in Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A and Note 9 – Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this report). In fiscal 2017, capital expenditures related to environmental projects were $17 million, and we expect to spend up to $20 million on capital expenditures related to environmental projects in fiscal 2018. Indirect Consequences of Future Legislation and Regulation Future legislation or increased regulation regarding climate change and GHG emissions could impose significant costs on our business and our customers and suppliers, including increased energy, capital equipment, environmental monitoring and reporting and other costs in order to comply with laws and regulations concerning climate change and GHG emissions. The potential costs of allowances, taxes, fees, offsets or credits that may be part of “cap and trade” programs or similar future legislative or regulatory measures are still uncertain. Any adopted future climate change and GHG laws or regulations could negatively impact our ability (and that of our customers and suppliers) to compete with companies situated in areas not subject to such limitations. Furthermore, even without such laws or regulations, increased awareness and any adverse publicity in the global marketplace about the GHGs emitted by companies in the metals recycling and steel manufacturing industries could harm our reputation and reduce customer demand for our products. GHG legislation and regulation is also expected to have an effect on the price of electricity, especially when generated using carbon-based fuels. Since the electricity supply for CSS includes a significant element of hydro-generated production, CSS’s energy costs are less likely to be impacted than those of competitors using electricity generated by carbon-based fuels. In addition, demand for scrap metal may increase as a result of mills with blast furnaces seeking to maximize the scrap metal component of raw material infeed, as melting scrap metal involves less energy than is required for melting iron ore.