SCHNITZER STEEL INDUSTRIES, INC. 50 / Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc. Form 10-K 2017 ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK Commodity Price Risk We are exposed to commodity price risk, mainly associated with variations in the market price for ferrous and nonferrous metals, including scrap metal, finished steel products, autobodies and other commodities. The timing and magnitude of industry cycles are difficult to predict and are impacted by general economic conditions. We respond to increases and decreases in forward selling prices by adjusting purchase prices. We actively manage our exposure to commodity price risk and monitor the actual and expected spread between forward selling prices and purchase costs and processing and shipping expense. Sales contracts are based on prices negotiated with our customers, and generally orders are placed 30 to 60 days ahead of shipment date. However, financial results may be negatively impacted when forward selling prices fall more quickly than we can adjust purchase prices or when customers fail tomeet their contractual obligations.We assess the net realizable value of inventory (“NRV”) each quarter based upon contracted sales orders and estimated future selling prices. Based on contracted sales and estimates of future selling prices, a 10% decrease in the selling price of inventory would not have had a material NRV impact on any of our reportable segments as of August 31, 2017 and 2016. Interest Rate Risk We are exposed to market risk associated with changes in interest rates related to our debt obligations. Our revolving credit facility is subject to variable interest rates and therefore have exposure to changes in interest rates. If market interest rates had changed 10% from actual interest rate levels in fiscal 2017 or 2016, the effect on our interest expense and net income would not have been material. Credit Risk Credit risk relates to the risk of loss that might occur as a result of non-performance by counterparties of their contractual obligations to take delivery of scrap metal and finished steel products and to make financial settlements of these obligations, or to provide sufficient quantities of scrap metal or payment to settle advances, loans and other contractual receivables in connection with demolition and scrap extraction projects. We manage our exposure to credit risk through a variety of methods, including shipping ferrous scrap metal exports under letters of credit, collection of deposits prior to shipment for certain nonferrous export customers, establishment of credit limits for sales on open terms, credit insurance and designation of collateral and financial guarantees securing advances, loans and other contractual receivables. We ship nearly all ferrous bulk sales to foreign customers under contracts supported by letters of credit issued or confirmed by banks it deems creditworthy. The letters of credit ensure payment by the customer. As we generally sell export recycled ferrous metal under contracts or orders that generally provide for shipment within 30 to 60 days after the price is agreed, our customers typically do not have difficulty obtaining letters of credit from their banks in periods of rising ferrous prices, as the value of the letters of credit are collateralized by the value of the inventory on the ship. However, in periods of significantly declining prices, our customers may not be able to obtain letters of credit for the full sales value of the inventory to be shipped. As of August 31, 2017 and 2016, 33% and 34%, respectively, of our trade accounts receivable balance were covered by letters of credit. Of the remaining balance, 88% and 94% was less than 60 days past due as of August 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk We are exposed to foreign currency exchange rate risk, mainly associated with sales transactions and related accounts receivable denominated in the U.S. Dollar by our Canadian subsidiary with a functional currency of the Canadian Dollar. In certain instances, we use derivatives to manage some portion of this risk. As of August 31, 2017, we did not have any derivative contracts.