SCHNITZER STEEL INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 62 / Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc. Form 10-K 2017 Long-Lived Assets The Company tests long-lived tangible and intangible assets for impairment at the asset group level, which is determined based on the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other groups of assets and liabilities. For the Company's metals recycling operations reported within AMR, an asset group is generally comprised of the regional shredding and export operation along with surrounding feeder yards. For regions with no shredding and export operations, each metals recycling yard is an asset group. For the Company's auto parts operations, generally each auto parts store is an asset group. The combined steel manufacturing and metals recycling operations within CSS are a single asset group. Prior to their combination into CSS in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2017, the Company's steel manufacturing operations and Oregon metals recycling operations were distinct asset groups. The Company tests its asset groups for impairment when certain triggering events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the asset group may be impaired. If the carrying value of the asset group is not recoverable because it exceeds the Company’s estimate of future undiscounted cash flows from the use and eventual disposition of the asset group, an impairment loss is recognized by the amount the carrying value exceeds its fair value, if any. The impairment loss is allocated to the long-lived assets of the group on a pro rata basis using the relative carrying amounts of those assets, except that the loss allocated to an individual long-lived asset of the group shall not reduce the carrying amount of that asset below its fair value. Fair value is determined primarily using the cost and market approaches. During fiscal 2016 and 2015, the Company recorded impairment charges on long-lived asset groups associated with certain regional metals recycling operations and retail auto parts store locations. With respect to individual long-lived assets, changes in circumstances may merit a change in the estimated useful lives or salvage values of the assets, which are accounted for prospectively in the period of change. For such assets, the useful life is shortened based on the Company's current plans to dispose of or abandon the asset before the end of its original useful life and depreciation is accelerated beginning when that determination is made. During fiscal 2017, the Company recognized accelerated depreciation primarily due to shortening the useful lives of idled and decommissioned machinery and equipment assets. During fiscal 2016 and 2015, the Company recognized accelerated depreciation due to shortened useful lives in connection with site closures and idled equipment. See the Asset Impairment Charges (Recoveries), net section of this Note for tabular presentation of long-lived asset impairment charges and accelerated depreciation. Long-lived asset impairment charges and accelerated depreciation are reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations within (1) other asset impairment charges (recoveries), net; (2) restructuring charges and other exit-related activities if related to a site closure not qualifying for discontinued operations reporting; or (3) loss from discontinued operations, if related to a component of the Company qualifying for discontinued operations reporting. Investments in Joint Ventures As of August 31, 2017, the Company had four 50%-owned joint venture interests which were accounted for under the equity method of accounting. Three of the joint venture interests are presented as part of AMR operations, and one interest is presented as part of CSS operations. The joint ventures sell recycled metal to AMR and to CSS at prices that approximate local market rates, which produces intercompany profit. This intercompany profit is eliminated while the products remain in inventory and is not recognized until the finished products are sold to third parties. As of August 31, 2017, the Company’s investments in equity method joint ventures have generated $9 million in cumulative undistributed earnings. A loss in value of an investment in a joint venture is recognized when the decline is other than temporary. Management considers all available evidence to evaluate the realizable value of its investments including the length of time and the extent to which the fair value has been less than cost, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the joint venture business, and the Company’s intent and ability to retain the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value. Once management determines that an other-than-temporary impairment exists, the investment is written down to its fair value, which establishes a new cost basis. The Company determines fair value using Level 3 inputs under the fair value hierarchy using an income approach based on a discounted cash flow analysis. During fiscal 2017 and 2016, the Company recorded impairment charges of $1 million and $2 million, respectively, related to its investments in joint ventures, which are reported within other asset impairment charges (recoveries), net in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. During fiscal 2017, one of the Company's joint venture interests sold real estate resulting in recognition of a $6 million gain by the joint venture, $3 million of which is attributable to the Company's investment. The Company's share of the gain is reported within (income) loss from joint ventures in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Also during fiscal 2017, the Company sold one of its 50% joint venture interests presented as part of CSS operations, resulting in recognition of a $1 million gain on the sale. The gain represents a recovery of impairments recorded against the investment in prior years and is reported within other asset impairment charges (recoveries), net.