SCHNITZER STEEL INDUSTRIES, INC. NOTES TO THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 64 / Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc. Form 10-K 2017 When testing goodwill for impairment, the Company has the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the estimated fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If the Company elects to perform a qualitative assessment and determines that an impairment is more likely than not, the Company is then required to perform the quantitative impairment test, otherwise no further analysis is required. The Company also may elect not to perform the qualitative assessment and, instead, proceed directly to the quantitative impairment test. Under the accounting guidance in effect for the Company prior to the third quarter of fiscal 2017, in the first step of the two-step quantitative impairment test, the fair value of a reporting unit was compared to its carrying value. If the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeded its fair value, the second step of the impairment test was performed for purposes of measuring the impairment. In the second step, the fair value of the reporting unit was allocated to all of the assets and liabilities of the reporting unit to determine an implied goodwill value. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit’s goodwill exceeded the implied fair value of goodwill, an impairment loss was recognized in an amount equal to that excess. As of the beginning of the third quarter of fiscal 2017, the Company adopted an accounting standard update that eliminates the second step of the two-step goodwill impairment test with no impact to the Consolidated Financial Statements. Under the revised guidance, the Company applies a one-step quantitative test and records the amount of goodwill impairment as the excess of a reporting unit's carrying amount over its fair value, not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The new guidance does not amend the optional qualitative assessment of goodwill impairment. When the Company is required to perform a quantitative goodwill impairment test, it estimates the fair value of its reporting units using an income approach based on the present value of expected future cash flows, including terminal value, utilizing a market- based weighted average cost of capital (“WACC”) determined separately for each reporting unit. The determination of fair value involves the use of significant estimates and assumptions, including revenue growth rates driven by future commodity prices and volume expectations, operating margins, capital expenditures, working capital requirements, tax rates, terminal growth rates, discount rates, benefits associated with a taxable transaction and synergistic benefits available to market participants. In addition, to corroborate the reporting units’ valuation, the Company uses a market approach based on earnings multiple data and a reconciliation of the Company’s estimate of the aggregate fair value of the reporting units to the Company’s market capitalization, including consideration of a control premium. See Note 6 - Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, net for further detail including the recognition of goodwill impairment charges of $9 million and $141 million during fiscal 2016 and 2015, respectively. The Company tests indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment by first assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is necessary to perform a quantitative impairment test. If the Company believes, as a result of its qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the indefinite-lived intangible asset is less than its carrying amount, the quantitative impairment test is required. Otherwise, no further testing is required. The Company did not record impairment charges on indefinite- lived intangible assets in any of the periods presented. Restructuring Charges Restructuring charges consist of severance, contract termination and other restructuring-related costs. A liability for severance costs is typically recognized when the plan of termination has been communicated to the affected employees and is measured at its fair value at the communication date. Contract termination costs consist primarily of costs that will continue to be incurred under operating leases for their remaining terms without economic benefit to the Company. A liability for contract termination costs is recognized at the date the Company ceases using the rights conveyed by the lease contract and is measured at its fair value, which is determined based on the remaining contractual lease rentals reduced by estimated sublease rentals. A liability for other restructuring-related costs is measured at its fair value in the period in which the liability is incurred. See Note 10 - Restructuring Charges and Other Exit-Related Activities for further detail. Accrued Workers’ Compensation Costs The Company is self-insured for the significant majority of workers’ compensation claims with exposure limited by various stop- loss insurance policies. The Company estimates the costs of workers’ compensation claims based on the nature of the injury incurred and on guidelines established by the applicable state. An accrual is recorded based upon the amount of unpaid claims as of the balance sheet date. Accrued amounts recorded for individual claims are reviewed periodically as treatment progresses and adjusted to reflect additional information that becomes available. The estimated cost of claims incurred but not reported is included in the accrual. The Company accrued $10 million for the estimated cost of unpaid workers’ compensation claims as of August 31, 2017 and 2016, which are included in other accrued liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.